Diarrhea – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

 

What is diarrhea? Diarrhea is a condition that is often experienced by many people. Diarrhea is a condition when intestinal peristalsis is faster than usual so that defecation is more dilute and more frequent. Sometimes, diarrhea is not a dangerous disease. However, diarrhea is a condition that causes serious effects if it results in dehydration which ultimately causes hypovolemic shock (body drop due to lack of fluid).

In Indonesia, diarrhea is a health problem that is quite alarming. Diarrhea is ranked 13th cause of death in general with a proportion of 3.5 percent. Whereas for the category of infectious diseases, diarrhea was ranked third.

Causes of diarrhea

Of course you already know what diarrhea is. However, besides finding out what diarrhea is, you also need to know the cause of diarrhea. Causes of diarrhea can vary. One of them, diarrhea can occur due to food poisoning, bacterial infections, and stress. Diarrhea can usually heal itself because actually diarrhea itself is the body’s mechanism for removing toxins and germs in the intestine. In young children, the most common cause of diarrhea is a virus that can heal by itself.

Although the cause of diarrhea can sometimes be cured without medication, diarrhea sufferers still need to be considered because if a lot of body fluids are wasted, diarrhea sufferers must drink lots of fluids and anti-diarrhea drugs if this disease has disrupted daily activities. For cases of prolonged diarrhea (more than 2 weeks) there may be other underlying diseases.

When a person has diarrhea, the stool becomes watery because of the amount of fluid secreted into the intestine. Or vice versa, the fluid in the intestine cannot be absorbed and circulated throughout the body. This condition is influenced by many factors that can also make diarrhea a short or long time.

For short-term diseases, the cause of diarrhea is:

  • At most, diarrheal diseases are caused by bacterial infections. Bacterial infections that can also cause food poisoning (campylobacter, clostridum difficile, escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella)
  • Appendicitis
  • Food allergies can also be a cause of diarrhea
  • Damage to the intestinal lining due to radiotherapy
  • Psychological problems (eg anxiety disorders)
  • Foods that contain artificial sweeteners
  • Viral infections (rotavirus and norovirus) are other causes of diarrhea
  • Parasite giardia intestinalis

Meanwhile, long-term diarrheal diseases are usually caused by:

  • Crohn’s disease, which is inflammation of the lining of the digestive system
  • Ulcerative colitis, which is a condition that affects the large intestine
  • Irritable bowel syndrome or disruption of normal bowel function
  • There are also cases of diarrhea caused by colon cancer.
  • Chronic pancreatic inflammation

Diagnosis of diarrhea

There are several tests that can be done to diagnose diarrheal diseases, including:

1. Analysis of faeces

The doctor will ask you to submit the stool sample for analysis. This aims to identify possible infections. This analysis is done if you have had diarrhea for more than two weeks, there is blood or pus in the stool. In addition, this examination also needs to be done if you have diarrhea after being hospitalized or because of a weak immune system (HIV sufferers).

2. Blood test

Your doctor will ask you to take a blood test if there is a suspicion that the symptoms of diarrhea you are experiencing are symptoms of another disease. For example, the results of blood tests indicate inflammation. This is one symptom of inflammatory bowel disease and not just common diarrhea.

3. Rectal examination

If the patient is over 50 years old or has symptoms of diarrhea that is difficult to heal, the doctor will do a digital rectal examination. The method of examination is done by inserting a finger into the rectum to check for abnormal conditions. This examination aims to diagnose diseases related to the rectum and intestines, so doctors can suspect that the symptoms of diarrhea shown by the patient are actually not just ordinary diarrhea.

Also read: Are you having diarrhea? These Are Food Choices To Deal With It

Symptoms of diarrhea

In each patient, diarrhea symptoms vary. Some people remove stools that are very watery, while others remove feces that are not too runny. The following are signs or symptoms of diarrhea that you experience getting worse.

  • Pimples are thick and yellow, the frequency of voiding is less than 4 times per day with fever, sunken eyes, and dry skin
  • Diarrhea stays above 2 weeks
  • Cramps
  • Stomach ache
  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Fever

Symptoms of severe diarrhea such as this can be signs of conditions such as infection, irritable bowel disease, pancreatitis, colon cancer, or a decrease in immune conditions. Even so, diarrhea can disappear on its own within 48 hours. The most important thing that can be done when diarrhea is to stay well hydrated, avoid foods that trigger diarrhea such as spicy and fibrous foods.

For information, excessive fluid discharge through feces coupled with loss of appetite can result in dehydration. This condition must be treated immediately because it can be fatal. Dehydration itself is easier to occur in children. This is because children’s resistance to dehydration is lower than that of adults.

Treatment of diarrhea

If not immediately given treatment, diarrhea can lead to dehydration. Dehydration has fatal consequences and has the potential to take a patient’s life, especially if it occurs in children. This is because the child’s body’s resistance to dehydration is much lower than that of adults.

Overcome dehydration with ORS or drink lots of water in large quantities. Water intake is very important to prevent dehydration. Visit a doctor immediately to get the right treatment.

The following are some types of medications to treat diarrhea:

  • Treatment of diarrhea with drugs to bind water so that stools are more dense, such as attalpulgit drugs
  • Treatment of diarrhea with drugs to stop intestinal peristalsis such as papaverine or antiparasympathetic
  • Treatment of diarrhea with antibiotics or antiparasites is consumed when the results of stool examination indicate a bacterial infection or parasitic infection such as amoeba.

Antidiarrheal medications are usually not needed, except for those who have solid activities or who want to travel long distances. One of the antidiarrheal drugs for the treatment of diarrhea that is effective and fast in stopping diarrhea is loperamide. Even so, loperamide should not be given to children.

Most diarrhea sufferers can recover after a few days without treatment of diarrhea. In adults, diarrhea usually resolves after 2-4 days. Whereas in children, diarrhea usually lasts longer between 5-7 days.

Barren

sad man

Infertility or infertility is a couple who have not been able to have children even though they have been tried. There are a number of requirements for women to be able to conceive (potentially producing offspring):

  • Women produce eggs
  • Men produce quality sprema
  • There is fertilization of sperm cells to the egg
  • The fertilized egg attaches to the inner uterus.

If one of these conditions is not fulfilled, then it is likely to produce small offspring. As additional knowledge, that infertility is not only on the part of women, men are potentially barren. Men who like to drink alcohol, consume drugs, smokers, live in a high air pollution environment, old age, have the potential to be barren.

Cause
In women, infertility is caused by abnormalities in the uterus, age, stress, malnutrition, smoking, alcohol, or sexually transmitted diseases.

Symptoms
There have been no signs of pregnancy despite continuous efforts.

Treatment
Increase the potential to get pregnant by having intercourse every 3 days a week so that the possibility of ovulation is also high. Ovulation occurs within 2 weeks before and after the fertility period begins. If the fertility period is 28 days, you should have an intercourse every three days between 7 to 18 days of fertility.

Treatment depends on the cause of infertility. Therefore it is advisable to consult a gynecologist.

Insomnia – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Insomnia

What is insomnia? Insomnia is a term that you may have heard very often. The meaning of insomnia is a sleep disorder where people have difficulty sleeping , difficulty starting to sleep, or difficulty maintaining sleep.

The meaning of insomnia is a sleep disorder that affects millions of people around the world. Usually people with symptoms of insomnia find it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep. The effects of these symptoms of insomnia can be very damaging.

Insomnia causes effects that lead to daytime drowsiness, lethargy, and unhealthy feelings, both mentally and physically. In addition, people who practice insomnia also usually experience changes in mood, the nature of anger, and anxiety are common symptoms associated.

Insomnia is a condition of sleep disorders also associated with a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. According to the National Sleep Foundation , 30-40 percent of American adults report insomnia in the past 12 months, and 10-15 percent of adults claim to have chronic insomnia.

Type of Insomnia

After you know what is insomnia and the characteristics of insomnia, you also need to know the type of insomnia. There are 2 types of insomnia: Primary and secondary

  • Primary insomnia : When people suffer from sleep problems that are not directly related to any health condition.
  • Secondary insomnia : When people suffer from sleep problems due to other health problems, including asthma , depression, arthritis, cancer, stomach acid, pain, ongoing treatment, or alcohol use. So, the cause of secondary insomnia is more to the side effects of other health problems.

Acute and Chronic Insomnia

Insomnia also varies depending on how long insomnia occurs and whether it often occurs. Insomnia can be divided into short-term insomnia (acute insomnia) or has occurred for some time (chronic insomnia). Insomnia is said to be chronic when people have insomnia for at least 3 nights a week or for a month or more.

Causes of Insomnia

Causes of acute insomnia include:

  • Significant life pressure, such as losing something valuable, divorce, and moving house
  • Disease can also be a cause of insomnia
  • Physical or emotional discomfort
  • Environmental factors such as noise, temperature or excessive light that affect sleep
  • Treatment, such as people who are in the treatment of flu, allergies, depression, high blood pressure, and asthma
  • Changes in sleep patterns.

Conic insomnia causes include:

  • Depression or anxiety
  • Prolonged stress
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Problems with concentration or memory.

Insomnia symptoms

The symptoms of insomnia itself are symptoms of underlying medical conditions. However, there are many characteristics of insomnia or insomnia symptoms that you need to know, such as:

  • Difficulty sleeping at night
  • Wake up at night
  • Wake up earlier than desired
  • Still feeling tired after a night’s sleep
  • Fatigue or drowsiness during the day
  • Irritability, depression, or anxiety
  • Poor concentration and focus
  • Headache
  • Difficulty socializing
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Worry about sleeping.

Sleep deprivation causes other symptoms. Patients with insomnia can wake up not feeling fully awake and refreshed, and may have a sensation of fatigue and drowsiness throughout the day.

Having problems concentrating and focusing on tasks is common for insomnia sufferers. According to the National Heart , Lung and Blood Institute , 20 percent of non-alcoholic car accidents are caused by driver drowsiness.

Diagnosis of Insomnia

Insomnia means sleep disturbance or protracted sleeplessness. If you think you have insomnia, consult a doctor, then you will evaluate your medical history, sleep history, and physical examination. Your doctor will also advise you to have “sleep” for a week or 2 weeks, to find out your sleep patterns and what you feel throughout the day. The doctor will also ask your sleeping partner, wife or husband, about the quality and quantity of your sleep.

How to deal with insomnia?

Maybe you can’t wait to find out how to deal with insomnia. Some types of insomnia disappear when the underlying cause is treated or lost. Usually, treatment as a way to deal with insomnia focuses on determining the cause. Once identified, these underlying causes can be treated or corrected correctly.

In addition to treating the underlying causes of insomnia, both medical and non-pharmacological (behavioral) treatments can be used as therapy.

Non-pharmacological approaches include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in one-on-one counseling sessions or group therapy.

Medical care as a way to deal with insomnia includes:

  • Prescription sleeping pills
  • Anti-depressant
  • Sleep aids
  • Antihistamines
  • Melatonin
  • Ramelteon

Home Remedies – How to Get Rid of Insomnia

How to eliminate insomnia at home include:

  • Fixing ” sleep hygiene : Not getting too much sleep or too little, exercising every day, not forcing sleep, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine at night, avoiding smoking, avoiding sleep when hungry, and ensuring a comfortable sleeping environment.
  • Using relaxation techniques : This is a way to eliminate insomnia that is very effective. Examples include meditation and muscle relaxation.
    Stimulation control therapy – just sleep immediately when sleepy. Avoid watching TV, reading, eating, or worry in bed. Set an alarm for the same time every morning (even weekends) and avoid long naps.
  • Sleep restriction: Reducing time spent in bed and reducing part of sleep can increase fatigue, be ready for the next night.

Insomnia therapy

You already know how to get rid of insomnia. However, what if you suffer from acute insomnia?

Acute insomnia usually does not require sleep. Insomnia that has not been severe can be prevented or treated by trying to practice good sleep patterns. If insomnia makes it difficult for you to do daily activities because it makes your daily life become tired and sleepy, doctors will prescribe sleeping pills for a limited time. Treatment of rapid onset, short term, will help you prevent side effects such as fatigue the next day.

Therapy for chronic insomnia includes the first treatment of the underlying condition or health problems that cause insomnia. If insomnia continues, the doctor will suggest behavioral therapy in the form of an approach to help change things that worsen insomnia and learn new habits to facilitate sleep. Techniques such as relaxation exercises, limiting naps, will be beneficial.

Pedophilia – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

child cry

Pedophilia is a psychiatric disorder in which adults have sexual attraction to minors. Pedophilia is usually detected after puberty, when its sexual orientation is focused on children, not adults. A pedophile cannot determine their sexual orientation and then feel afraid of themselves.

To diagnose someone with pedophilia, all of the following behavioral criteria need to be fulfilled in advance with that person:

  • Often happens or repeatedly.
  • Having excessive sexual fantasies.
  • Insistence or behavior involving sexual activity with minors (usually aged 14 years and under) for a period of at least 6 months.

Pedophilia is sometimes a taboo topic, but often becomes a conversation. Who are the pedophiles? How are pedophilia treated by the medical community?

Not all pedophiles persecute children. The persecution is determined by the behavior of the person, while the pedophile is determined based on the person’s lust. Some pedophiles sexually do approach children throughout their lives. But it is not clear how often pedophiles do it.

Is pedophilia categorized as a mental disorder?

The American Psychiatric Associaton (APA) has included pedophilia in the Mental Disorders Diagnosis and Manual (DSM) Manual since 1968. Within the DSM, which is updated periodically, pedophilia has been grouped with other paraphilias – where APA defines it as’ an impulse, fantasy, and repetitive sexual behavior, involving children, whether as subjects or fantasy fantasies’

However, in the next edition of the DSM, DSM 5 refers to a diagnosis of ‘pedophilia disorder’, in which pedophilia is used as a diagnosis of pedophilic disorders when this makes the person feel anxious, guilty, different, or difficult to achieve life goals, or if they are encouraged to sexual satisfaction makes them have sexual relations in real life.

Can pedophilia be treated?

Yes, pedophilia can be treated. Although many experts think that pedophilia cannot be treated, but therapeutic methods are believed to help pedophiles manage feelings and not engage in sexual drive in real life. Some patients who are unable to control their sexual urges do need drugs to reduce their sexual desire.

Is pedophilia only interested in children?

Some pedophiles can also be attracted to adults just as they are attracted to children, but it is not known how often this happens, because most pedophilia is found based on those who commit sexual violence against children. It is very rare that pedophilia cases that occur if an adult is from the beginning are already attracted to fellow adults.

Do pedophilia occur in women and men?

Almost all pedophiles are men, but it does not rule out the possibility for women to have pedophilia. Accurate data has not been collected because the majority of patients close themselves from the community. This disease research is carried out on pedophiles who commit sexual violence, therefore the results are still uncertain.

How do pedophiles face their feelings?

Some pedophiles embrace and try to justify their sexual orientation. Others recognize that approaching children in real life is morally wrong. A pedophile is easy to be frustrated, feels isolated, lonely, depressed , and anxious. Stress in people with pedophilia disorders can cause a variety of secondary psychological problems. However, there are some tough individuals who succeed in living productive and successful lives, even though their sexuality remains a source of frustration.

For information, there is no characteristic of a pedophile, this disease can infect those who are young and old. Usually pedofi does not choose foreign children as victims. They tend to choose children they already know, whether they are family, neighbors, or community members who are followed by pedophiles.

5 Healthy Ways that You Can Do Easily

Healthy Ways

 

Running a healthy way of life for some people is often considered something that is quite inconvenient, one of which is when someone runs a diet program.

Starting a diet also becomes a hard thing because you have imagined what foods you should not eat. In fact, if you look closely, diet can be a fun thing and a healthy life can be done without burden.

Although a healthy way of life is not something that is easy to do, healthy living has many benefits, such as helping you maintain weight, increase energy to prevent disease.

Keep in mind, a person’s lifestyle is also influenced by daily activities such as work, food and rest periods. If some of these factors are not properly considered, the impact on your health can be disrupted.

Here are 5 healthy ways you can try, including:

1. Eat healthy and balanced

The main healthy way of life is good nutrition. In order for the body to grow and develop and carry out its functions optimally, it requires balanced nutrition. How to cook it as much as possible does not damage nutrients and fiber so that it still benefits those who consume it.

If you have unhealthy eating habits, it seems you need to list all the food consumed every day. This note is useful to be a reminder that you limit your consumption. You are advised to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables at least nine servings a day as part of a healthy lifestyle.

2. Eat and drink as naturally as possible

So much food and drinks are now produced by industry, where production is carried out en masse, a long production process takes a long time to reach consumers. This causes these foods and drinks to need preservatives. Start to use natural food ingredients.

Another healthy way you can do is stop smoking or consume alcoholic beverages, especially if you are at risk or have suffered from diabetes, arthritis, or heart disease.

3. Exercise regularly

Healthy life that is often missed by people living in big cities is sports. Exercise in the right way and the right time can make blood circulation smooth, strengthen muscles and bones.

Evaluate your daily activities whether dominated by sitting around in front of the computer or having been active every day. Health experts recommend exercising for a total duration of at least 150 minutes per week

4. Avoid stress

The heavy burden of life, sometimes brings stress. The physical symptoms caused are headaches, abdominal pain, increased high blood pressure, chest pain and insomnia.

Managing stress can be done by taking time to relax, make a hobby, yoga or meditation so that a healthy living culture can be created.

Another healthy life tips that are often missed are gratitude. Noting things that you should be grateful for can make the soul calmer.

Gratitude rooted and manifested in life will make the mind and heart calm. Spiritually healthy will also affect physical health.

5. Rest enough

Adequate rest is the key to getting a healthy body and mind. Make sure your sleep hours are met by getting used to sleeping and waking up at the same time. A warm shower, reading a book, or listening to music can be a sleep-taking activity that helps the body to rest.

Well , that’s a healthy way of life that you can easily do. Good luck.